Publications @en

October 2020 Battle over cocoa prices: a missed opportunity for a fairer and more sustainable chocolate Frédéric Amiel

A last-ditch action The three-week threat by Ivory Coast and Ghana of a blockage of cocoa sales for the 2020-2021 season (production is generally sold several months in advance on futures markets) marked a turning point in a sector historically characterised by a balance of power unfavourable to producers. While the price, set on international […]

October 2020 High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net Guillermo Ortu…, Daniel C. Dunn, Matthew Gianni, Kristina Gjerde, Glen Wright, Patrick Halpin

Citation Guillermo Ortuño Crespo, Daniel C. Dunn, Matthew Gianni, Kristina Gjerde, Glen Wright & Patrick N. Halpin  Abstract States at the United Nations have begun negotiating a new treaty to strengthen the legal regime for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Failure to ensure the full scope of fish biodiversity is covered could result […]

October 2020 The Global Commission on Adaptation: a new political momentum? Lola Vallejo

Climate change poses two challenges to our societies: we should try and mitigate the climate breakdown by reducing our greenhouse gas emissions, while preparing for the inevitable impacts our past emissions will have on climate, our ecosystems, and our societies. While the world cannot claim to have solved either challenge to date, mitigation tends to […]

October 2020 For a cocoa without deforestation: performance of labels and company actions Frédéric Amiel, Yann Laurans

Key Messages Organic and fair trade labels are having some interesting results–especially with regard to supporting producers and diminishing the pressure on local biodiversity (at least for the organic certification)— but they are overly reliant on world cocoa prices. In a context of global overproduction, they do not always offer a profitable alternative to conventional […]

October 2020 Can the Green Deal be the core of the EU’s project for its external partnerships? Elisabeth Hege

“The European Green Deal is both the EU’s new growth strategy and a plan to make Europe the world’s first climate-neutral continent by 2050.”1 It is first and foremost a domestic agenda of structural transformation but it also states that all EU actions and policies should support the objectives of the Green Deal. What does […]

October 2020 Reconstruction and transformation: the key role of financing for sustainable development and the public development banks Sébastien Treyer

How to finance the recovery and transformation of entire sectors of the economy Every country and every territory is different: each one will have to find its own path to the reconstruction and restructuring of its economy, in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which must […]

October 2020 What is the 2019 agenda for biodiversity? Yann Laurans, Aleksandar Rankovic

Opening negotiations on the post-2020 biodiversity framework The year 2019 is crucial for the preparation and mobilisation of the “Global Post-2020 Biodiversity Framework”, the current name of the replacement for the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 and its Aichi Targets, adopted in 2010 in Nagoya (Japan). Since January, a series of “regional consultations” have been and will […]

October 2020 Agroecology and carbon neutrality: what are the issues? Pierre-Marie Aubert, Marie-Hélène Schwoob, Xavier Poux

Key Messages The TYFA scenario is based on the generalisation of organic farming (abandoning synthetic pesticides and fertilizers), the extension of agroecological infrastructures and the adoption of healthy diets, to feed 530 million Europeans by 2050 (despite a 35% drop in production). It leads to a 40% reduction in GHG emissions (35% for direct non-CO2 […]

October 2020 Entry into force of the African Continental Free Trade Area: what are the political consequences for Africa and the European Union? Tancrède Voituriez

Africa chooses trade with Africa Ever since Adam Smith and David Ricardo (18th and 19th century economists), it has become the norm to classify countries on an axis ranging from protectionism to free trade, according to their commercial openness. The trade doctrine of the African countries, gathered within the African Union (AU), seems to somewhat […]

October 2020 Revising the ‘host country standard’ principle: a step for China to align its overseas investment with the Paris Agreement Tancrède Voituriez, Wang Yao, Mathias Lund Larsen

Key policy insights Chinese development banks lend, give or invest between US$ 38 billion and US$ 45 billion every year to developing countries, without either elaborating on, or integrating, the provisions of the Paris Agreement into their investment strategy. Regulations and safeguards are much more stringent for China’s domestic investment than for China’s overseas investment, […]