Publications @en

October 2021 Battle over cocoa prices: a missed opportunity for a fairer and more sustainable chocolate Frédéric Amiel

A last-ditch action The three-week threat by Ivory Coast and Ghana of a blockage of cocoa sales for the 2020-2021 season (production is generally sold several months in advance on futures markets) marked a turning point in a sector historically characterised by a balance of power unfavourable to producers. While the price, set on international […]

October 2021 High-seas fish biodiversity is slipping through the governance net Guillermo Ortu…, Daniel C. Dunn, Matthew Gianni, Kristina Gjerde, Glen Wright, Patrick Halpin

Citation Guillermo Ortuño Crespo, Daniel C. Dunn, Matthew Gianni, Kristina Gjerde, Glen Wright & Patrick N. Halpin  Abstract States at the United Nations have begun negotiating a new treaty to strengthen the legal regime for marine biodiversity in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Failure to ensure the full scope of fish biodiversity is covered could result […]

October 2021 The Global Commission on Adaptation: a new political momentum? Lola Vallejo

Climate change poses two challenges to our societies: we should try and mitigate the climate breakdown by reducing our greenhouse gas emissions, while preparing for the inevitable impacts our past emissions will have on climate, our ecosystems, and our societies. While the world cannot claim to have solved either challenge to date, mitigation tends to […]

October 2021 For a cocoa without deforestation: performance of labels and company actions Frédéric Amiel, Yann Laurans

Key Messages Organic and fair trade labels are having some interesting results–especially with regard to supporting producers and diminishing the pressure on local biodiversity (at least for the organic certification)— but they are overly reliant on world cocoa prices. In a context of global overproduction, they do not always offer a profitable alternative to conventional […]

October 2021 Reconciling recovery and sustainability on the ground: the role of subnational public development banks Maria Alejandr…, Sergio Gusmão …, Cinthia Helena…, Adauto Modesto…

Thinking local, acting global A recent study published by the OECD estimated that 65% of the 169 targets underlying the 17 SDGs will not be reached without proper engagement of and coordination with local and regional governments.1 Furthermore, the Covid-19 crisis has been a strong reminder of the integrated and interconnected nature of the common […]

October 2021 EU-Mercosur agreement: Is the EU trade policy entering a new phase? Klaudija Cremers

After 20 years of negotiations, the EU and the Mercosur countries reached an “agreement in principle” on June 28, 2019.1 Germany initially fully supported the EU-Mercosur deal and made the conclusion of this file a priority during its Presidency of the Council of the EU (July 1-December 31, 2020). The German position, however, changed in […]

October 2021 A key challenge for the European elections: Europe’s commitment to global environmental protection and to sustainable development Lucien Chabason

A virtuous Europe, internationally and internally… According to the Global Energy and CO2 Status Report Global Energy and CO2 Status Report published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) last week, global primary energy consumption increased by 2.6% in 2018, i.e. double the average of the previous eight years, an increase that has essentially been met […]

October 2021 Agroecology and carbon neutrality in Europe by 2050: what are the issues? Pierre-Marie Aubert, Marie-Hélène Schwoob, Xavier Poux

Key Messages The TYFA scenario is based on the generalisation of organic farming (abandoning synthetic pesticides and fertilizers), the extension of agroecological infrastructures and the adoption of healthy diets, to feed 530 million Europeans by 2050 (despite a 35% drop in production). It leads to a 40% reduction in GHG emissions (35% for direct non-CO2 […]

October 2021 Entry into force of the African Continental Free Trade Area: what are the political consequences for Africa and the European Union? Tancrède Voituriez

Africa chooses trade with Africa Ever since Adam Smith and David Ricardo (18th and 19th century economists), it has become the norm to classify countries on an axis ranging from protectionism to free trade, according to their commercial openness. The trade doctrine of the African countries, gathered within the African Union (AU), seems to somewhat […]

October 2021 Revising the ‘host country standard’ principle: a step for China to align its overseas investment with the Paris Agreement Tancrède Voituriez, Wang Yao, Mathias Lund Larsen

Key policy insights Chinese development banks lend, give or invest between US$ 38 billion and US$ 45 billion every year to developing countries, without either elaborating on, or integrating, the provisions of the Paris Agreement into their investment strategy. Regulations and safeguards are much more stringent for China’s domestic investment than for China’s overseas investment, […]